Buckwheat cultivation: types and application options
Buckwheat is one of the major cereal cultures that firmly holds its position in the consumer market. It is possible to call it a strategic product with a stretch, but there is always demand for it. At the same time, many farmers prefer not to bind to buckwheat, since it has a reputation of a rather troublesome and low-yielding culture that does not always pay off. However, when complying with all the rules of cultivation, buckwheat is able to give very high yields.
- Buckwheat – Culture Description
- Ordinary (sowing) buckwheat is a species
- The species is the evolutionary set of individuals characterized by a single …
Herbatous plants included in the preching botanical generation of the Buckwheat family. Buckwheat grain is a popular cereal, widely used in food in the post-Soviet space and in some other countries.
Buckwheat straight ribbed reddish color stem with crankshaft. The height of the adult plant reaches an average of 50-120 cm, but individual plants are capable of stretching into a height of more than 2 meters.
Form of leaves different within one plant. Closer to the ground are the cherry heart-shaped-pointed leaves, and closer to the top and edges of the branches – sweatshops.
The root has a rod structure and penetrates the ground to a depth of about a meter, but most root branches are located within 40 cm from the ground surface.
Flowers buckwheat are collected in inflorescences and consist of five petals with large pistol columns. Color – white or pale pink, cream. Seeds of buckwheat, which is customary to call grain, usually have the shape of a dihedral pyramid.
Buckwheat gives male and female flowers. One plant can have flowers of only one type. Pollination between plants is carried out mainly by insects, but the wind pollination also takes place.
Although on one plant is formed about half a thousand flowers, the grain harvest is given only about 5% of them, while the rest are just falling. It is believed that it is this feature of buckwheat and is the main cause of a low yield of this culture.
Modern cultural buckwheat, as it is believed, about 5-8 thousand years ago in Northern India, Tibet or South-West China, where and now in natural conditions, its wild relatives grow. Over the next one and a half millennium, buckwheat spread throughout China, and from there he fell into Korea and Japanese Islands. A little later, this culture was brought to Central Asia, the Middle Eastern region and the Caucasus.
It is believed that in Europe, the cultivation of buckwheat began after the Tatar-Mongolian invasion, although Slavs learned about it much earlier – from the Byzantines (because of which we call it buckwheat – that is, “Greek Large”).
However, there are alternative versions that do not fit at all described above. Archaeological finds show that in the territory of modern Finland, the buckwheat was grown in 4-5 thousand to AD, which greatly makes it difficult to justify the Himalayan region as the Motherland of Cultural Buckk.
Using buckwheat in cooking
First of all, buckwheat is a cereal grain culture. Fruits or grains of buckwheat goes to the food of a person and on food agricultural and pet.
In Russia, buckwheat goes on sale mainly in the form of solid barracks that have been thermal processing. Such a cereal is great for making porridges, various casseroles, a kitlet, as well as for soups. Flour from the grinding of buckwheat – the product is more rare and less popular, since it is more expensive than wheat and in most parameters is inferior to it. In particular, due to the absence of gluten in buckwheat flour, it is impossible to make baking and bread from it. Finally, the unnecessary (green) croup is considered more useful than the usual roar, but is used in the same dishes.
In the post-Soviet space, including buckwheat in Russia is a rather popular product. Consumers prefer almost exclusively roasted buckwheat from which cereal, soups and other dishes are preparing. Green buckwheat with us almost does not use. In West countries, the ordinary consumer who has familiar to us, and only those who are very concerned about their health and figure, occasionally buys green buckwheat as a dietary product.
In the East, in particular in Japan, the flour of their wheat and buckwheat is used to make the traditional noodle (soba) and other pasta. A similar tradition is available in the Alpine Italian cuisine. The French make the famous Breton Pancakes from buckwheat flour. Finally, in the national cuisine, Jews living in Eastern Europe, there is Varnishkees Porridge, which is prepared from buckwheat cereals cooked with vermicelli.
Other applications of buckwheat
Buckwheat is the most important honeycomb in the regions with light sandy soils. In such a terrain, the success of beekeeping and the volume of production of honey directly depend on the presence / absence from the proximity of buckwheat fields. In a favorable year, one hectare of buckwheat is able to give from 50 to 80 kg of high-quality honey.
Today in New Zealand, buckwheat is used as a biological agent to combat pests. The rich in pollen and nectar of the plantation of this culture attract predatory insects, which safe biological methods sharply reduce the number of pest insects, destroying crops of other cultures.
Finally, buckwheat is widely used in folk and modern scientific medicine. For example, the processing of buckwheat in a certain way allows to obtain the raw materials necessary for the production of routine. This substance is used in the treatment of some vascular diseases, diathesis, hypertension, measles, scarletins, atherosclerosis, and even radiation sickness. Also, buckwheat in one form or another is used in the treatment of many other diseases, including varicose veins, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, arthritis and sclerosis.
Buckwheat has long been used in folk medicine. Thus, the decoction of flowers and buckwheat leaves were used in the fight against a cold, as well as with a dry cough. Buckwheat squeezed patients and wounded, lost a lot of blood. The ointment and parfots of buckwheat flour were treated with skin diseases, and fresh leaves – wounds and clumps.
At the moment, more than 60 varieties of buckwheat were zoned in Russia, most of which are local, that is, purely regional. Received the greatest distribution:
Bogatyr. Suitable for cultivation on almost the entire European part of the country, with the exception of the North and South-West, as well as in some regions of Siberia. The variety is considered high-yielding, with high quality grain.
- Designed for the southern regions of the Central Chernozem Zone and the North Caucasus.
- Sorted zoned for Tatarstan and adjacent regions. The variety is distinguished by random.
- Designed for the southern regions.
- Released in Belarus, but on climatic conditions is also suitable for the Amur and Nizhny Novgorod regions of Russia. Grain high-yield variety, but the quality of the grain is average.
It should be noted that there is also buckwheat Tatar. But this is not a variety, but a separate independent view
The species is the evolutionary set of individuals characterized by a single …
Plants of the same botanical clan. Tatar buckwheat is considered a weed plant, but if desired, it can be grown as aft crop for animals.
General information about the cultivation of buckwheat
Buckwheat is a rather thermal-loving culture. Seeds germinate at a temperature not lower than 6 ° C, and truly massive crops spare when the earth warms up to 15-20 ° C. With the optimal temperature and humidity of the soil between the north and appearance of germs, it takes no more than a week – an average of 5-6 days.
If, after the appearance of germs, frosts and the temperature will fall as a pair of degrees below zero, young shoots can suffer greatly until the loss of crop. Oddly enough, but high temperatures for buckwheat are contraindicated to the same extent. If the heat comes over 30 ° C, the pace of pollination is sharply reduced, the wounds are formed significantly worse, and, as a result, the crop decreases sharply.
Capricious buckwheat is not only in terms of temperature, but also in relation to humidity. It has a fairly high transpiration ratio: on the formation of 1 g of dry mass of the plant, it consumes 500-600 g of water. It is for these reasons that it is believed to grow buckwheat – the business is troublesome.
But the requirements for the composition of the soil in this culture are quite liberal. Buckwheat grows well on podzolic, and on gray opodoline soil, and on all types of chernozem. Bad crops The plant gives only a very acidic podzolic (pH of 4.5 and lower) and severely solon-fired soil.